• The Knight’s Tale is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales.
  • The epic poem Teseida  by Giovanni Boccaccio is the source of this tale.
  • It has 2,250 lines.
  • This tale is considered as a chivalric romance.
  • The story introduces various typical aspects of knighthood such as courtly love and ethical dilemmas.
  • The story introduces various typical aspects of knighthood such as courtly love and ethical dilemmas.
  • Emily is Theseus’s sister-in-law.
  • The friendship between Palamon and Arcite quickly disappears in the name of Emily.
  • Perotheus is a mutual friend of Theseus and Arcite.
  • Arcite is released from prison from imprisonment to exile through the influence of Perotheus.
  • Arcite then later returns to Athens in disguise of Emily’s household worker.
  • Palamon escapes by drugging the jailer.
  • Upon the protests of Theseus’s wife and Emily, Theseus decides to have them compete in a tournament instead.
  • Palamon prays to Venus to make Emily his wife.
  • Emily prays to Diana to remain unmarried, or else to marry the one who truly loves her.
  • Arcite prays to Mars for victory.
  • Theseus lays down rules for the tournament so that if any man becomes seriously injured, he must be dragged out.
  • Palamon and Arcite fight valiantly, Palamon is wounded by a chance.
  • Arcite wins the battle, but following a divine intervention by Saturn, he is mortally wounded by his own horse.
  • As he dies, he tells Emily that she should marry Palamon, because he would make a good husband for her.
  • Palamon marries Emily, and thus all three prayers are fulfilled.
  • The Milleres Tale is the second tale told by the drunken miller.
  • It is the second of Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales .
  • The carpenter is named as, John.
  • He lives in Oxford with his wife Alisoun.
  • She is a local beauty and she is younger.
  • John rents out a room in his house to a clever scholar named Nicholas.
  • He has an eye at Alisoun.
  • John makes a day trip to a nearby town. 
  • Nicholas physically approaches Alisoun and leads her to have sex with him.
  • Alisoun goes to church, where Absolon tries to woo Alisoun.
  • He convinces John that God is about to send a great flood.
  • He says that they could save themselves by hanging three large tubs from the ceiling to sleep in. Once the waters rose, they would cut the ropes and float away. 
  • Absolon begs her for a kiss. Alison offers her backside. 
  • Enraged upon discovering the deception, Absolon returns and pleads once more.
  • Nicholas assumes the same pose and is rewarded with a scorching branding iron.
  • His cries for water awaken the carpenter and he assumes that the flood is near.
  • He cuts the rope holding his tub and comes crashing through the attic.
  • Miller’s tale is a love triangle between three men and one woman.
  • The genre of tale is known as the fabliau.
  • Reeve’s real name is Oswald.
  • The Reeve’s Tale is the third story told in Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales
  • The Reeve was a carpenter before his manager job, the carpenter profession mocked in the previous Miller’s Tale. 
  • So Oswald responds with a tale that mocks the Miller’s profession.
  • This tale is one of the first English works to use dialect for comic effect.
  • The tale is based on a popular fabliau The Decameron.
  • Symkyn is a miller who lives in Trumington. 
  • He always steals wheat and meal brought to him for grinding.
  • Symkyn’s wife is the daughter of the town clergyman. They are extremely proud that.
  • They have a twenty-year-old daughter Malyne and a six-month-old son.
  • Symkyn overcharged with the work of grinding corn for Soler Hall, a Cambridge University college also known as King’s Hall.
  • The college steward was too ill to go for grinding.
  • John and Aleyn named two students were ready to beat the miller at his own game.
  • John and Aleyn  decided to watch while he grinds it into flour, pretending that they are interested in the process.
  • Symkyn unties their horse, and the two students are unable to catch it until nightfall. 
  • Returning to the miller’s house, John and Aleyn offer to pay him for a night’s sleeping there.
  • Symkyn and his wife sleep in one bed, John and Aleyn in another, and Malyne in the third.
  • John and Aleyn were lie awake, plotting revenge.
  • First Aleyn creeps over to Malyne in her bed 
  • When the miller’s wife leaves her bed to relieve herself of the wine, John moves the baby’s cradle to the foot of his own bed.  
  • Miller’s wife mistakenly assumes that John’s bed is her own.
  • Aleyn says goodbye to Malyne and he goes to the other bed, shakes the miller by thinking that he is John.
  •  Symkyn rises from his bed in a rage, which wakes his wife in John’s bed.
  •  She takes a club and hits her raging husband by mistake.
  • John and Aleyn beat up the miller, taking the bread made from their stolen grain.
  •  The story starts telling of an apprentice named Perkyn.
  • He was a short man with dark complexion and black hair.
  • He was an excellent dancer and his craft was selling food.
  • He loved the tavern better than his shop.
  • He often stole from his master.
  • Perkyn is released by his master and moves in with a friend who also loves to drink.
  • His wife is a shopkeeper whose real occupation is that of a prostitute.
  • Thus the tale ends.
  • Chaucer deliberately left the tale unfinished.
  • The Man of Law’s Tale is the fifth of the Canterbury Tales.
  • Custance is the daughter of the emperor in Rome.
  • Syrian merchants report her great beauty to the Sultan.
  • Custance is eventually betrothed to the Sultan once he promises that he and his court will convert to Christianity.
  • A marriage contract is negotiated by her father, which requires the Sultan and his subjects to convert to Christianity.
  • Sultan’s mother became furious over her son’s betrayal of their faith—vows to avenge and defend her religion.
  •  She orders all of the Christians (including the converts and her own son) to be killed.
  • The sole survivor of the massacre, Custance is placed in a rudderless boat and set out to sea.
  • As a result she arrives in Northumberland and is taken in by the warden of a local castle and his wife, Dame Hermengyld.
  • They are pagans, but Custance converts the wife.
  • A young knight falls in love with Custance but grows quickly vengeful when she rejects his advances.
  • He kills Hermengyld while she and Custance are sleeping, and places the knife next to Custance to make it look as though she had committed the murder.
  • Custance is put on trial before Alla, the king of Northumberland.
  • The local people come to her defense, saying that she would never have committed such a crime.
  • The king orders the knight to swear on a book (an act that mimics a Christian’s swearing on a Bible) that Custance committed the murder.
  • He dies instantly upon making his claim.
  • As a result of witnessing this miracle, the king and the spectators convert to Christianity.
  • Alla decides to marry Custance, which angers his mother Donegild.
  • Custance eventually gives birth to a boy, named Mauricius, while Alla is away, and Donegild sends a false letter about the birth telling her son that the child was born deformed.
  • Alla expresses his enduring love for his wife and child in another letter, but Donegild replaces it with one containing orders for Custance and Mauricius’ banishment, and they are placed back in Custance’s rudderless boat and sent back to sea.
  • Custance, washes ashore in another heathen land and is nearly raped by the warden of the local castle.
  • Virgin Mary comes to her aid, however, and saves her.
  • Emperor of Rome sends an army to Syria, to avenge the erstwhile Christian massacre.
  • The army, finds Custance and her son on their return journey and brings them back to Rome.
  • Alla makes his way to Rome on pilgrimage to do penance for the killing of his mother.
  • Eventually reunited with Custance and Mauricius; Custance is also reunited with her father, the Emperor.
  • The tale comes to a close by telling of the family’s return to England, Alla’s untimely death, and the eventual instatement of Mauricius as the Emperor of Rome.
  • John Gower’s “Tale of Constance” in Confessio Amantis tells the same story and may have been a source for Chaucer.
  • The story centers around a corrupt summoner and his interactions with the Devil.
  • The Friar’s tale is the attack on the summoners.
  • One day, when he is going to summon an old widow, he meets a yeoman.
  • The summoner and yeoman begin to travel together while the summoner asks him a question regarding his whereabouts so as to rob him.
  • Finally, they reveal each other their real identity and yeoman came out to be a devil who belongs to hell.
  • They continue to move further and find out a carter whose wagon was stuck in the mud.
  • The devil encourages the carter to pray to God and when he does that the Horse pulls the wagon out of the mud.
  • The summoner asks the devil to accompany him the old widow’s house.
  • They reach there and the summoner summons her to appear in the church.
  • She says she cannot travel because she is sick.
  • He agrees and demands twelve pence which she thinks is too much.
  • The demon takes his body and soul as well as the frying pan to hell.
  • In short The Friar’s Tale is directly aimed at his professional rival Summoner
  • The tale is a counterpart to the tale by The Friar.
  • A friar went to preach and beg in a marshy region of Yorkshire called Holderness.
  • In his sermons he begged for donations for the church and after that he begged for charity from the local residents.
  • The Friar interrupts the storytelling of Summoner by calling the Summoner a liar, but the Host controls him.
  • The friar in the story continued to beg house by house and then he came to the house of Thomas, and found him ill.
  • He ordered a meal from Thomas’s wife.
  • She told the friar that her child had died recently.
  • The friar claimed that he had a revelation that her child had died and entered heaven.
  • He  claimed that his fellow friars had a similar vision.
  • He also claimed that among the clergy, only friars remain impoverished and thus are closest to God.
  • Further he said his illness persists because he had given so little to the church.
  •  The friar then preaches on the sin of anger and quotes many classical examples.
  •  In fact, he says that Thomas should give everything to the friars.
  • He makes Thomas more and more angry and finally Thomas says that he has a gift for the friar, on the condition that the friar promises to share the gift with the other friars.
  • Friar agrees, Thomas tells him to reach down yhua hand beneath his buttocks, and there he can find something he have hidden there.
  • The friar quickly runs his hand down the old man’s buttocks, and at that moment the old man lets out a fart.
  • Enraged Friar leaves Thomas and goes to see a wealthy lord and he tells of this insult, saying, “I wont be asked to divide what cannot be divided into equal parts.”
  •  The lord’s servant explains how the fart can be equally divided. He could sit in the centre of the wheel and fart. 
  • The Summoner is responding to ‘The Friar’s Tale’, where summoners were portrayed badly, so he depicts friars in negative manner. 
  • Here the Friar’s attack is on the Summoner’s intelligence.
  • The Summoner’s Tale” is based on a medieval French fabliau.
  •  The Clerk’s Tale is the first tale of Fragment IV in  The Canterbury Tales.
  •  He tells the tale of Griselda, a young woman whose husband tests her loyalty in a series of cruel torments.
  •  The Clerk’s tale is about a marquis of Saluzzo in Piedmont in Italy named Walter, a bachelor who is asked by his subjects to marry to provide an heir.
  •  He decides to marry a peasant, named Griselda, who is a poor girl.
  •  After Griselda gave him a daughter, Walter decides to test her loyalty.
  •  He tells her that one of his courtiers will soon come for the child, and asks taking the child from her will in no way change her love for him. 
  •  She says it will not change her love for him. 
  •  He sends an officer to take the baby, pretending it will be killed.
  •  She makes no protest at this but only asks that the child be buried properly.
  • Four years pass, and Griselda bears a son. 
  • He again repeats the test. 
  • Finally, Walter determines one last test. He has a papal bull of annulment forged which enables him to leave Griselda, and informs her that he intends to remarry.
  • He employs Griselda to prepare the wedding for his new bride.
  • At the same time he has brought the children from Bologna, and he presents his daughter as his intended wife.
  • Griselda is overcome by joy at seeing her children alive, and they live happily ever after.
  • It is a story the clerk heard from a great gentleman from Padua named Francis Petrarch.
  • As a reply for this story Chaucer warns all husbands not to test the patience of their wives. 
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